According to Peter Northhouse (2016), Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group or individuals to achieve a common goal. Defining leadership as a process indicates that it is a transactional experience which allows for the concept of exchange between or among individuals to exist. Therefore, it is not linear, a one-way event, but interactive. This, simply put, acknowledges for the conceptualization of the ability for one to be a leader to be available to everyone.

Over the past 60 years, leadership has been cataloged in roughly 65 diverse categories.  The leader operates as the nucleus of a group’s dynamics as his or her interactions adjust, modify and transform the activity of the group as to personify the group’s perspective. 

This specific type of leadership also influences the group by utilizing, “…a combination of special traits or characteristics that some individuals possess.  These traits enable those individuals to induce others to accomplish tasks.  Other approaches to leadership define it as an act or a behavior—the things leaders do to bring about change in a group” (Northouse, P., G., 2016, p. 6; Leadership: Theory And Practice).

Various other leaders have utilized technology such as TED Talks in auditorium venues to reach other leaders, followers and the like in order to assist in creating better dialogue as well as understanding that not only can anyone be a good leader, but to relay the message that something so seemly small as choice, outlook, and attitude can transform your endeavors from great to extraordinary. Leaders are at times put in impossible situations. One prevailing theme seems to cut across the board when enabling followers to pursue their dreams.

Linda Cliatt-Wayman's lecture is an example of what it takes to lead. Her Mantra's cut to the heart of reaching her endeavors while eliminating excuses no matter what.

“If You’re Gonna Lead, Lead. – Leaders Make The Impossible Possible!

So What? Now What? – What Are We Going To Do About It?

If Nobody Told You, They Loved You Today, You Remember I Do And I Always Will!”

Linda Cliatt-Wayman: How to fix a broken school? Lead fearlessly, and love hard

Graen & Uhl-Bien (1991) site research done aimed at the Leader-Member Exchange Theory which targets the socio-dynamics among leaders and followers (Northouse, P., G., 2016, p. 135).  This is accomplished through research evaluations surrounding the conditions to develop the working environment's performance and conducting ways to improve and modify the leader-member dynamic. 

According to Northouse (2016), “Leadership making is a prescriptive approach to leadership - emphasizing that leaders should develop high-quality exchanges with all of their followers rather than just a few. [This approach]..attempts to make every follower feel as if he or she is a part of the in-group and, by so doing, avoids the inequities and negative implications of being in an out-group. In general, leadership making promotes partnerships in which the leader tries to build effective dyads with all followers in the work unit” (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). 

An additional series of research studies discovered constructive and solid links, Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) which paralleled with enhanced-points of commitment, role-conflict and ambiguity, work-performance and fulfillment as well as compelling support for similar studies for personnel (Northouse, P., G., 2016, p. 141).

Pamla DL Johnson


Northouse, Peter G.  (2016). Leadership: theory and practice.  Los Angeles, Ca.  Sage Publishing.

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